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考研英语作文高分秘籍:练好“逗号六式”

发布日期:2013-06-16 浏览次数:739
核心提示:熟悉考研英语的同学都应该知道,英语作文采用的是总体评分法,作文评卷老师主要凭借总体印象打分,而我国老师评卷时往往看重的是语言。因此语言的顺畅、优美直接影响到实际作文分数的高低。鉴于不少考生英语作文写作语言生硬平淡、单调乏味、缺少变通。
       熟悉考研英语的同学都应该知道,英语作文采用的是总体评分法,作文评卷老师主要凭借总体印象打分,而我国老师评卷时往往看重的是语言。因此语言的顺畅、优美直接影响到实际作文分数的高低。鉴于不少考生英语作文写作语言生硬平淡、单调乏味、缺少变通。本文将结合往届考研作文,考研英语教研室张老师从标点符号这一常被大家忽略的方面破解考研高分作文的机密,并为总结出“逗号六式”的使用方法,希望能对广大考生写作时提高语言表达有所裨益。
  第一式:非限制性定语从句的试用
  1.Nomadays,the call for quality-oriented education is becoming widesperad and the drawbacks of testoriented education,which have aroused great concern throughout China,are becoming increasingly apparent.
  2.The shar pcontrast hinges on the Protection of the greenhouse,which determines in a large measure the life and death ofthe lovely flower.
  3.This trend began during the Second World War,when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generaly be foreseen in detail
  逗号前后是我们写作时构造复杂多变、精彩生动句子结构的突破口。上述三例中我们合理巧妙地运用了非限制性定语从句,使前后两个分句有机地连接起来,显得连贯、自然。例1用关系代词which (非限制性定语从句不能用that)代替逗号前整个分句的意思。这样就把原本要用两个句子来表达的信息通过定语从句压缩为一个主从复合句,显得简洁、不罗嗉。例2用关系代词which代替逗号前先行词the green house,通过非限制性定语从句进一步说明温室对于鲜花存活的重要性。例3中逗号前先行词是表时间,因此用关系代词when引导非限制性定语从句,将主要信息移置逗号之后,取得“尾重”或“末尾聚焦(end—weight)”的效果。其实考生们对于非限制性定语从句的用法不可谓不熟,但可能就是缺乏用多种手段衔接分句的意识。
  第二式:非谓语动词做状语的使用
  1.By contrast,when removed from the greenhouse,the protective umbrella,it struggles helplessly against the sudden attack of storms,only tO wither away.
  2.Parents are too eager to mold their kids,disregarding their individuality with a callous attitude toward their personal development.
  3.School—age children are often seen carring bulging bags on their backs,weighed down on their way to and form school every day.
  非谓语动词有四种变现形式,即动词不定式、现在分词、过去分词和动名词。利用这几种非谓语动词形式(动名词不能做状语除外)做状语,能很好地突出信息,取得信息“末尾聚焦(end—weight)”的效果。例1用only加动词不定式表示出乎意料的结果,做结果状语。从而将备受溺爱的孩子们不更世事、不堪一击的惨状和盘托出。例2用现在分词做结果状语,表示一种必然的发展趋势,即结果在意料之中。例3用过去分词做伴随状语,将饱受应试教育摧残的学龄儿童那苦不堪言的情形栩栩如生地勾勒了出来,辛辣的嘲讽宛然可见。当然这几种非谓语动词形式也可放在逗号前面一分句或句子中间,如
  4.Weighing boththese arguments.I can cometOthe conclusionthatthereis no need tO take SO drastic a step as doing away with this custom.(现在分词做时间状语)
  5.An old peasant,bringing his own food,volunteered as a guide for US.(现在分词做伴随状语)
  非谓语动词做状语到底放在前还是放在后似乎没有绝对的要求。但一般来说,做伴随状语时可前可后做原因状语时放在前面较多,间或放在后面;做时间状语时一般放在句子前,做结果状语时一般放在后半分句,做条件状语时一般放在前面分句,等等。
  第三式:同位语或插入语的使用
  1. AS iS distinct from above,the number“13”.along-held symbol of ominous.ness in the eyes of most westerners,seems tO be plaguing them.
  2. By contrast,when removed from the greenhouse,the protective umbrella,it struggles helplessly against the sudden attack of storms,only tO wither away.
  3.Specifically,the number…6’,as they strongly believe,is closely associated with smoothness in the Chinese culture.
  同位语或插入语一般插在主谓语之间,一般由名词词组(如例l、2)、介词词组(如in my opinion,in other words等)、从句(如例3)、不定式短语、现在分词短语充当。它们能起到补充说明的作用。除此之外,插入语还可对整句话表示解释,如:
  4.There were twenty people present,to be precise.(不定式短语做插入语)
  5. Roughly speaking,these countries are the most densely—populated in Asia.(现在分词短语做插入语)
  第四式:With结构的使用
  1.Wenowlivein a societywhere competition in the job market rages,with graduates and ioh-hunters from all walks Of life scrambling for desirable iobs
  2.As described in the picture.an American girl is wearing a Chinese costume characteristic of some minority group, with a sweet smile on her face.
  3.These children can set their hearts at ease,with everything wel—arranged by their parents.
  4.He entered upon the new enterprise cautiously,with his eyes wide open.
  With结构总的说来有五种形式,即:W+名(代)词+现在分词(如例1),With+名(代)词+过去分词(如例3),Wich+名(代)词+介词短语(如例2),Wich+名(代)词+副词或形容词(如例4),With+名(代)词+不定式。With结构可表原因(如例1、3)、伴随或方式(如例2、4)、等。
  第五式:独立主格结构的使用
  1.Rosy dreams shattered,they are bewildering at the junction:“To be or not to be?That is the question”一Hamlet’S perplexed monologue is echoing in their ears.
  2 “Just listen to this,”she will say,her eyes glowing,her warm fmgers pressed tO my palm tO hold my attention
  3 The U.S.population expanding dramaticaly,the species of its wildlife haS Witnessed a —corresp0nding declineina span of two centurie s(1800—2000).
  4.Hewentof,gun in hand
  5.The floor was wet and slippery,So we stayed outside.
  6.The meal over,prayers were read by Miss Miller.
  两个或两个以上分句间如果主语不一致时要用独立主格结构。所谓“独立主格结构”实质就是带自己主语的非限定分句和无动词分句。它按结构形式分为不定式“独立结构”、一ing分词“独立结构”(如例2、3)、一ed分词“独立结构”(如例1、2)和无动词“独立结构”,即名(代)词+介词短语(如例4)、名(代)词+副词(如例6)或形容词(如例5)。
  第六式:形容词作状语的使用
  1.Disillusioned and disheartened,they are most likely tO collapse under the weight oflife.
  2.Livinginthewarlnnest,safeand sound they are utterly free from external hard—ships and ignorant of what the bare reality is like.
  形容词常可单独或引起短语做状语,可用来表示原因(如例1)、方式(如例2)等。形容词做状语位置比较灵活,可前可后或插在句中。
  句式的复杂多变要求一篇作文中既要有简单句、并列句又要复合句甚至复杂复合句。要构造句子结构的复杂多变就必须讲究分句之间的衔接与连贯问题。逗号六剑法实质就是逗号后(前)分句问衔接与连贯的六种技巧。跨考考研希望考生能够牢记并熟练运用。
       作者:跨考考研
 
 
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